Thursday, April 17, 2014

Important Battles And Wars In India

Battle of Hydaspes 326 B.C.—Alexander the Great, defeated Porus, the Paurava king. Impressed
by the valour of Porus, ultimately Alexander returned his kingdom to him.

Battle of Kalinga 261 B.C.—Ashoka defeated the king of Kalinga. Ashoka embraced Buddhism
and preached it during the rest of his life after this war.

First Battle of Tarain or Thaneswar A.D. 1191 Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Mohammed

Ghori. Second Battle of Tarain A.D. 1192—Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Ghori’s victory paved the way for the establishment of Muslim rule in India.

First Battle of Panipat 1526—Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. This laid the foundation of the Mughal rule in India.

Battle of Khanwah 1527—Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar. This battle resulted in the
defeat of the powerful Rajput confederacy.

Second Battle of Panipat 1556—Bairam Khan (Akbar’s General) defeated Hemu (the Hindu
General and right-hand man of Mohd. Adil Shah). It also ended the Afghan Rule and Mughal Rule
began instead.

Battle of Talikota 1564- 65—United alliance between Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmednagar and Golkonda
under Hussain Nizam Shah defeated Ram Raja of Vijayanagar. It destroyed the Hindu Kingdom of

Battle of Haldighati 1576—Akbar’s forces headed by Raja Man Singh defeated Rana Pratap, the
brave Rajput king. Though defeated, Rana Pratap refused to accept Mughal authority and carried on
warfare till his death.

Battle of Plassey 1757—The English under Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah.It brought
Muslim Rule in Bengal to an end and laid foundations of the British Rule in India.

Battle of Wandiwash 1760—The English defeated the French. The battle sealed the fate of the
French in India and paved the way for English rule in India.

Third Battle of Panipat 1761—Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated Marathas. It gave a terrible blow to
the Maratha power. It made the field clear for the English.

Battle of Buxar 1764—Fought in 1764 between the forces of the English and the combined
forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daulah (Nawab of Oudh) and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. The
English victory at Buxar finally riveted the shackles of the Company’s rule upon Bengal.

First Mysore War (1767- 68)—In 1768, Haider Ali was defeated by the English relinquishing all
his rights over Mysore in favour of the English.

Second Mysore War 1780— A grand alliance between Haider Ali, the Nizam and the Marathas
was formed and Haider Ali. He defeated the English and took possession of Arcot and became the
undisputed master of the Carnatic.

Third Mysore War 1790- 92—Fought between the English and Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan had to
submit and was compelled to sign the Treaty of Seringapattam stripped him of half his territory.

Fourth Mysore War 1799—The British forces under Arthur Wellesley defeated Tipu Sultan, which brought the end of the Tipu Sultan. Maratha War 1803-05—It weakened the Maratha power. The
English annexed Tanjore, Surat and Carnatic.

Fourth Maratha War 1817- 18—The British forces defeated Marathas and this campaign finally extinguished the Maratha Empire.

Battle of Cheelianwala 1849—Forces of the East India Company under Lord Hugh Gough defeated the Sikhs under Sher Singh.

Burmese War 1885—As a result of this War, the whole of Burma was occupied by the English and
made a part of India.

Afghan War III 1919—As a result of this War, Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed by which Afghanistan was recognised as an independent State.

lndo-Pak War 1965—This was Pakistan’s second attack on India. While India had the upper hand, the fighting was brought to a stop by a call for ceasefire issued by the Security Council. Later on, Tashkent accord was signed between the two nations.

lndoPak War Dec 1971—Pakistan started the war attacking India on Dec 3. India defeated Pakistan
on all fronts. Pakistani occupation forces, numbering about one lakh, in East Bengal (Bangladesh) surrendered. Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation.

First in India - Men

First Indian to swim across the English Channel ----Mihir Sen
First to Climb Mount Everest ------Tenzing Norgay
First to climb Mount Everest without Oxygen -----------Phy Dorjee
First Indian to join I.C.S. (I.C.S. now IAS) ---------Satyendra Nath Tagore
First Indian to get Nobel Prize ----------Rabindra Nath Tagore
First Indian in Space (first Indian cosmonaut) -------------Sqn. Ldr. Rakesh Sharma
First British Governor General ----------Warren Hastings
First Governor General of Free India ------------Lord Mountbatten
First and the last Governor General of free India -----------C. Rajagopalachari
First President of India ------------Dr. Rajendra Prasad
First Vice-President of India ------------Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
First Muslim President of India ------------Dr. Zakir Hussain
First Sikh President of India ------------Giani Zail Singh
First Prime Minister ------------Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru
First Speaker of Lok Sabha ------------G.V. Mavlankar
First Chief Justice of India Justice ------------H.L. Kania
First President of Indian National Congress ------------W.C. Bannerjee
First Indian to become member of Viceroy's Executive Council ------------Lord S.P. Sinha
First Indian to become President of International Court of Justice ------------Dr. Nagendra Singh
First Emperor of Moghul Dynasty ------------Babar
First Field Marshal ------------S.H.F.J. Manekshaw
First Indian Commander-in-Chief of India ------------Gen. K.M. Cariappa
First Chief of the Army Staff (Indian) ------------Sinhji
First Chief of the Naval Staff (Indian) ------------Vice Admiral R.D. Katari
First Chief of the Air Force Staff (India) ------------Subroto Mukherjee
First Indian in British Parliament ------------Dada Bhai Nauroji
First Indian recipient of Victoria Cross (highest award before independence)------------Khudada Khan
First Indian to circumnavigate the globe ------------Lt. Col K.S. Rao
First Indian to reach the South Pole ------------Col J.K. Bajaj (1989)
First Indian to make a solo air flight ------------JRD Tata
First Indian to visit England ------------Raja Rammohan Roy (1832)
First Indian Member of House of Lords (British) ------------Lord S.P. Sinha
First Bar-at-Law ------------J.M. Tagore
First Chairman of Rajya Sabha ------------Dr. S. Radhakrishnan (1952 - 62)
First Indian Test Cricketer ------------K.S. Ranjitsingh
First Air Marshall ------------Arjan Singh
First Judge to face impeachment in the Lock Sabha Justice ------------V.Ramaswami (1993)
Fastest Shorthand writer ------------Dr. G.D. Bhist (250 wpm)

Books and Authors – Updates

1. Wedding Album : Girish Karnad
2. Where are You Going, You Monkeys : Ki Rajanarayanan
3. Street Singers of Lucknow and Other Stories : Qurratulain Hyder
4. The Value of Kashmir : John Isaac
5. Swami Vivekananda in America - New Findings : Asim Chaudhuri
6. Termites in The Trading System – How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade :
Jagdish Bhagwati
7. Indian Memsahib :  Sachita Malik
8. Falling through The Roof :  Thubten Samphel
9. Multiple City - Writings on Bangalore :  Aditi de
10. Imagining India – Ideas for the Now Century :  Nandan Nilekant
11. The Rozabal Line :  Ashwin Sanghi
12. Indian Theatre in 21stCentury :  Utpal K Banerjee
13. Daughters of Shame :  Jasvinder Sanghera
14. Delhi: India in One City :  Utpal K Banerjee
15. Divya :  Yashpal
16. Life is Perfect :  Hamani Dalmia
17. The Inheritance :  David Sengar
18. The Associate :  John Grisham
19. Cutting for Stone :  Abraham Verghese
20. 3 Zakia Mansion :  Gouri Dange
21. Recovering the Frontier State :  Rasul Bakhsh Rais
22. Batman RIP :  Grant Morrison and Tony S Daniel
23. Next Door :  Jahnavi Barua
24. In Other Rooms, Other Wonders :  Moni Mohsin and Daniyal Mueenuddin
25. Michelle Obama : First Lady of Hope :  Elizabeth Lightfoot
26. My China Diary 1956-88 :  K Natwar Singh
27. The Lost Flamingos of Bombay :  Siddharth Dhavant Shanghvi
28. From Poverty to Power :  Duncan Green
29. Women of Pride : The Devadasi Heriage :  Lakshmi Vishwanathan
30. Our Story Begins :  Tobias Wolff
31. Unaccustomed Earth :  Jhumpa Lahiri
32. Demons in the Spring :  Joe Meno
33. Obama : The Historic Journey :  Jill Abramson and Bill Killer
34. Politics of Inclusion : Castes, Minorities and Affirmative Action :  Zoya Hasan
35. Sonia – A Biography :  Rasheed Kidwai
36. Revolt : A Left Appraisal – Edited By :  Sitaran Yechuri
37. A Better India : A Better World :  N R Narayana Murthy
38. The Wasted Vigil : Nadeem Aslam
39. Madhavrao Scindia : A Life : Vir Sanghvi and Namita Bhandare
40. Burnt Shadows :  Kamila Shamsie
41. Piercing the Heart : Unheard Voices of 26/11 :  Simran Sodhi
42. Solo :  Rana Dasgupta
43. Cappuccino Dusk : Kankana Basu
44. Getting a Grip on My Body, My Mind, My Self :  Monica Seles
45. Jeff in Venice, Death in Varanasi :  Geoff Dyer
46. The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrun :  JRR Tolkien
47. India and the Global Financial Crisis : Managing Money and finance :  Y V Reddy
48. The Story of My Assassins :  Tarun J Tejpal
49. Indian by Choice :  Amit Dasgupta
50. Kapoors : The First Family of Indian Cinema :  Madhu Jain
51. Certain Girls :  Jennifer Weiner
52. Fidali’s Way :  George Mastras
53. In Other Rooms, Other Wonders :  Daniyal Mueenuddin
54. Little Man From the East :  Major General (Retd) MK Paul
55. Monster : Allan Hall
56. Baulsphere : Mimlu Sen
57. Notes from a Small Room : Ruskin Bond
58. Boys will be Boys :  Ruskin Bond
59. Unleashing India :  Veerappa Desai
60. Six Graves to Munich :  Mario Puzo
61. SMG : A Biography of Sunil Manohar Gavaskar :  Devendra Prabhudesai
62. The Winner Stands Alone : Paulo Coelho
63. Listening to Grasshoppers Field : Notes on Democracy :  Arundhati Roy
64. Solo :  Rana Dasgupta
65. The Wasted Vigil :  Nadeem Aslam
66. Cappuccino Dusk :  Kankana Basu
67. Jeff in Venice, Death in Varanasi :  Geoff Dyer
68. The Future of Cricket : The Rise of Twenty 20 :  John Buchanan
69. Musharraf – The Years in Power :  Murtaza Razvi
70. India and the Global Financial Crisis :  Y V Reddy
71. Widows, Renunciation and Social Self :  Bandana Majumdar
72. The Zigzag Way :  Anita Desai
73. The Judge Speaks :  Justice AR Lakshmanan
74. Shadow Across the Playing Field :  Shaharyar Khan and Shashi Tharoor
75. I Am Another You : Priya Kumar
76. Radical Trust :  Joe Healey
77. Straight Drive : Sunil Gavaskar
78. Jinnah : India, Partition, Independence :  Jaswant Singh
79. Glenn Mc Grath : Line and Strength :  GlennMc Grath and Daniel Lane
80. New Delhi : Making of a Capital :  Malvika Singh and Rudrangshu Mukherjee


1. Google — Larry Page & Sergey Brin
2. Facebook— Mark Zuckerberg
3. Yahoo— David Filo & Jerry Yang
4. Twitter— Jack Dorsey & Dick Costolo
5. Internet— Tim Berners Lee
6. Linkdin— Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue& Koonstantin Guericke
7. Email— Shiva Ayyadurai
8. Gtalk— Richard Wah kan
9. Whatsapp — Laurel Kirtz
10. Hotmail— Sabeer Bhatia
11. Orkut— Buyukkokten
12. Wikipedia— Jimmy Wales
13. You tube— Steve Chen, Chad Hurley & JawedKarim
14. Rediffmail— Ajit Balakrishnan
15. Nimbuzz— Martin Smink & Evert Jaap Lugt
16. Myspace— Chris Dewolfe & Tom Anderson
17. Ibibo — Ashish Kashyap
18. OLX— Alec Oxenford & Fabrice Grinda
19. Skype— Niklas Zennstrom,Janus Friis & Reid Hoffman
20. Opera— Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner & Geir lvarsoy
21. Mozilla Firefox— Dave Hyatt & Blake Ross
22. Blogger— Evan Willam Belli


Andhra Kesari - T. Prakasam
Akbar of Kashmir- Jainul Abdin
Anna - C. N. Annadurai
Bapu, Mahatma, Father of Nation -Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi
Bangabandu - Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Babu Ji - Jag Jeevan Ram
Badshah Khan, Frontier Gandhi- Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Bihar Kesari- Dr. Srikrishna Singh
Bengal Kesari - Ashutosh Mukherji
Bengali Tiger - Bipin Chandra Pal
Bird man of India - Salim Ali
Bard of Avon- William Shakespeare
Chacha, Pandit ji- Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru
C. R. / Rajaji - C. Rajagopalachari
Deen Bandhu - C.F Andrews
Desh Bandhu - C. R. Das
Desh Ratna, Ajatshatru - Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Enlightened One - Lord Buddha
Father of Indian Unrest, Maratha Kesari - Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Father of the Local Self-Government Lord Rippon
Father of Medicine - Hippocrates
Grand Old Man of India- Dadabhai Naoroji
Grandfather of Indian Films - Dhundiraj Govind Phalke
Gurudev, Kaviguru, Vishwa Kavi - Rabindranath Tagore
Guru Ji- M. S. Golvalkar
Grand old man of Indian Journalism- Tushar Kanti Ghosh
Indian Bismarck, Laoh Purush- Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel
Indian Einstein - Nagarjuna
Indian Shakespeare- Kalidasa
Indian Machiavelli- Chanakya
Indian Napoleon- Samudragupta
JP, Lok Nayak - Jayaprkash Narayan
Jana nayak- Karpuri Thakur
Lion of Punjab, Punjab Kesari- Lala Lajpat Rai
Lion of Kashmir- Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah
Lady with the lamp- Florence Nightingale
Lokmanya- Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Mahamana, Prince of Beggars- Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya
Man of Destiny - Napoleon Bonaparte
Martin Luther of India - Dayanand Saraswati
Man of Iron, Strong Man of India- Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel
Man of Peace - Lal Bahadur Shastri
Mysore Tiger - Tippu Sultan
Neta Ji, Patriot of Patriots- Subhas Chandra Bose
Nightingale of India- Sarojani Naidu
Parrot of India, Tota-e-hind- Amir Khusrau
Prince of Martyrs, Sahid-e-Azam- Bhagat Singh
Prince of Builders- Shahjahan
Prince of Autobiography -Babur
Prince of Money Makers - Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Poet's Poet - Edmund Spencer
Rajashree - Purushottam Das Tandon
Scourage of God - Chengiz khan
Sage of Kanchi - Sankaracharya
Sparrow - Major General Rajinder Singh
Tau- Chaudhury Devi Lal
Young Turk - Chandra Sekhar


ASCII  American Standard Code For Information Interchange
ALGOL  Algorithmic Language
AC  Alternate Current
ACPI  Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ALU  Arithmetic Logical Unit
ANSI  American National Standard Institute
APM  Advanced Power Management
ASIC  Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ABC  Atanasoff Berry Computer
ATM  Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BBS  Bulletin Board System
BCC  Block Character Check
BNC  Boyonet Nut Connector
BIOS  Basic Input/Output System
BSC  Binary Synchronous Communication
BCD  Binary Coded Decimal
BCC  Blind Carbon Copy
BASIC  Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
CAD  Computer Aided Design
CAM  Computer Aided Manufacturing
CDROM  Compact Disk Read Only Memory
CGA  Color Graphics Array
CMOS  Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CPU  Central Processing Unit
CPI  Clock Per Instruction
CRC  Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRT  Cathode Ray Tube
CSS  Cascading Style Sheet
CC  Carbon Copy
CAN  Campus Area Network
DEC  Digital Equipment Corporation
DRAM  Dynamic Random Access Memory
DAT  Digital Audio Tape
DC  Direct Current
DD  Double Density
DDR  Double Data Rate
DMA  Direct Memory Access
DOS  Disk Operating System
DTR  Data Terminal Ready
DML  Data Maipulation Language
DDL  Data Definition Language
DCL  Data Control Language
DBMS  Database Management System
DSL  Digital Subscriber Line
DBA  Data Base Administrator
DFD  Data Flow Diagram
EBCDIC  Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EC  Error Check
ECC  Error Check And Correction
EOF  End Of File
EOL  End Of Line
EPP  Enhanced Parallel Port
ESD  Electro-Static Discharge
ESCD  Extended System Configuration Data
FAT  File Allocation Table
FCC  Federal Communication Commission
FDD  Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI  Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM  Frequency Divison Multiplexing
FDX  Full-Duplex Transmission
FE  Front End
FIFO  First-In First-Out
FILO  First-In Last-Out
FM  Frequency Modulation
FTP  File Transfer Protocol
GUI  Graphical User Interface
GIF  Graphics Interchange Format
GPRS  General Packet Radio service
GSM  Global System For Mobile
HDD  Hard Disk Drive
HPFS  High Performance File System
HDX  Half-Duplex Transmission
HREF  Hyper Reference
HTTP  Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
HTTPS  Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure
HTML  Hypertext Markup Language
I/O  Input/Output
IBM  International Business Machine
IMP  Interface Message Processor
IPC  Inter Process Communication
IRQ  Interrupt Request
ISDN  Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO  International Standard Organization
IC  Integrated Circuit
LAN  Local Area Network
LCD  Liquid Crystal Display
LED  Light Emitting Diode
LSI  Large Scale Integration
LSB  Least Significant Bit
LUN  Logical Unit Number
MAN  Metropolitan Area Network
MB/Mb  Mega Byte/mega bit
MBR  Master Boot Record
MICR  Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MCGA  Multi Color Graphics Array
MIMD  Multiple-Instruction Multiple Data
MIPS  Millions Instruction Per Second
MISD  Multiple Instruction Single Data
MODEM  Modulator-Demodulator
MOPS  Millions Of Operations Per Second
MOS  Metal Oxide Semiconductor
MS  Microsoft
MSI  Medium Scale Integration
MIME  Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
NVRAM  Non-Volatile Random Access memory
NT  New Technology
NTFS  New Technology File System
OCR  Optical Character Recognition
OMR  Optical Mark Reader
ODI  Open Data Link Interface
OS  Operating System
OSF  Open System Interconnect
OSI  Open System Interconnection
OEM  Original Equipment Manufacturer
PB  Peta Byte
PC  Personal Computer
PCB  Printed Circuit Board
PCI  Peripheral Component Interconnect
PMOS  Positively Doped Metal Oxide Semiconductor
PNP  Plug-and-Play
POST  Power On self Test
PPP  Point-To-Point protocol
PSTN  Public Switched Telephone network
PNG  Portable Network Graphics
PDA  Personal Digital Assistant
RAID  Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk
RISC  Reduced Instructions Set Computer
RMS  Root Mean Squared
RPC  Remote Procedure Call
RTC  Real Time Clock
RTS  Request To Send
RDBMS  Relational Database Management System
RAR  Roshal Archieve
SIM  Subscriber Identity Module
SCSI  Small Computer System Interface
SDRAM  Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SIMM  Single Inline Memory Module
SMT  Surface Mount Technology
STDM  Synchronous Time Divison Multiplexing
SMD  Surface Mount Device
TCP/IP  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDMA  Time Divison Multiple Access
TFT  Thin Film Transistor
TTL  Transistor-Transistor Logic
TIF  Transferred Image File
TIFF  Tagged Image File Format
TCL  Transaction Control Language
TI  Texas Instrument
UDP  User Datagram protocol
UDDI  Universal Description Discovery and Integration
UPS  Uniterrupted Power Supply
USB  Universal Serial Bus
ULSI  Ultra Large Scale Integration
UTP  Unshielded Twisted pair
VBE  Video BIOS Extension
VCR  Vodeo Cassette Recorder
VESA  Video Enhanced Standards Association
VGA  Video Graphics Array
VLSI  Very Large Scale Integration
VIRUS  Vital Information Resources Under Siege
VPN  Virtual Private Network
WAN  Wide Area Network
WORM  Write Once Read Many
WMAP  Wireless Message Access Protocol
WI-FI  Wireless-Fidelity
WIMAX  World Wide Interoperability For Microwave Access
SQL  Structured Query Language
STP  Shielded Twisted Pair
SAN  Storage Area Network
SMTP  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP  Simple Network Mangement Protocol
SDSL  Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line
SDLC  Software Development Life Cycle
XGA  Extended Graphics Array
XOR  Exclusive-OR
XMS  Extended Memory Specification
XT  Extended Technlogy
ZIF  Zero Insertion Force